Viking Shields and Norman Shields
The use of Viking shields went far beyond a mere means to parry blows from an opponent. The Viking shield was typically round, being a successor to earlier Germanic shields with a diameter of around 80 to 90 cm or more. The Viking shield was made of planks of woods such as fir, pine, willow or linden. It usually contained a hole at the center that supported a hand grip at that point, covered by a metal boss. The Gokstad ship has places for shields to be hung on its railing, and the Gokstad shields have holes along the rim for fastening some sort of non-metallic rim protection. Towards the end of the Viking age, the Norman kite shield came into fashion.